among young people from higher education institutions, companies have difficulty finding qualified people for their positions.
keys to becoming entrepreneurs, especially soft skills: leadership, planning, time management, communication
the courses offered in the faculties are generally too theoretical and difficult to attract vocations, because teachers are rarely available, because teachers are rarely equipped with the necessary experience and private interveners are too expensive.
are often concentrated in major urban centres.
in most West African countries are very low with a very limited contribution from the private sector and governments, most of which have not established national R&D and innovation strategies.
(Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda…) and are seeing their R&D spending increase sharply, particularly through a major effort by the private and public sectors.
(including science) and the brain drain explain the skills shortage and lack of qualified personnel.
could be achieved through the return of the diaspora to the country. Foreign-trained individuals would thus bring the necessary skills and play a major role in new technology and innovation policies.